Physiographic Divisions of India (Longitudinal Divisions of the Himalaya-Continued)

In this article we will discuss Physiographic Divisions of India (Longitudinal Divisions of the Himalaya-Continued)

In this article, we will discuss Physiographic Divisions of India (Longitudinal Divisions of the Himalaya-Continued). So, let’s get started.

The Central Himalaya
This range stretches from river Kali to river Tista for  about 800 km occupying an area of about 116,800 sq km. A major part of it lies in Nepal except tne extreme eastern part called Sikkim Himalaya and in the Darjeeling District of west bengal. All the three ranges of the Himalaya are represented here. The highest peaks of the world like Mt.Everest (8850 m), Kanchenjunga  (8598 m), Makalu (8481 m) Dhaulagiri (8172 m), Annapurna (8078 ), Manaslu (8154 m) and Gosainath (8014 m) are situated in this part of the Himalaya. lt has very Tew passes. The  passees of Nathu-La and Jelep-La (4538 m in Sikkim) connect Gangtok (SIkkIm) with Lhasa (Tibet, China) Kanchenjunga: Situated on the border Sikkim  and Tibet, it is the third highest mountain peak in the world. It is 8,598 m above sea level and remains snow covered throughout the year. Some of the important rivers of India like Kosi and TIsta have their origin in this mountain.

The Eastern Himalaya
These lie between the Tista and the Brahmaputra rivers, covering a distance of about 720 km with an area of 67,500 sq km. The Eastern Himalaya occupy the state of Arunachal Pradesh (India) and Bhutan. In this part, the Himalayarise very rapidly from the plains of Assam, and the foothhills  of Shiwaliks are very narrow. The Eastern Himalaya include the Aka Hills, the Dafla Hills, Miri Hills, Abor Hills, Mishmi Hills, and Namcha Barwa (7756 m). It has a number of mountain passes among which Bomdi-La, Bom La, Tunga, Yonggyap, Diphu, Pangsau, Tse-La, Dihang, Debang (Arunachal Pradesh) are the most important. In the Eastern Himalaya, due to heavy rainfall, fluvial  erosion is quite pronounced. On the southern border of Arunachal Pradesh, the Himalaya take a southerly turn and the ranges are arranged in a north-south direction. Passing through the states of Arunachal Pradesh (Tirap Division) Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, and Mizoram, the Himalaya are locally known as Purvanchal. The main hills of the Eastem Himalaya are Patkai-Bum (Arunachal Pradesh), Naga-Hills (Nagaland), Manipur Hills, Blue Mountains (Mizoram), Tripura Range, and Brail range. On the border of Nagaland and Myanmar lies the Arakanyoma. These hills are heavily forested. Northern Myanmar is connected through Diphu, Hpungan, Chaukan, Pangsau, and Likhapani (Arunachal Pradesh). Southwards, a pass joins Imphal (Manipur) with Mandalay (Myanmar). The Purvanchal is joined by the Meghalaya Plateau in the west. The extension of the Myanmar mountain chain continues southward up to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and even up to the Archipelago of Indonesia.

The Syntaxial Bends of the Himalaya
The general east-west trend of the Himalaya terminates suddenly at its western and eastern
extremities and the ranges are sharply bent southward in deep knee-bend flextures which are called syntaxial bends. The western syntaxial bend is near Nanga Prabat where the Indus has cut a deep gorge. The geological formations here take sharp hairpin bends as if they were bent round pivotal points obstructing them. There is a similar hair-pin bend in Arunachal Pradesh where the mountains take a sharp bend from the eastern to southern direction after crossing the Brahmaputra river. The tectonic strike also undergoes a deep knee-bend from an easterly to southerly trend.

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