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Ice Ages in India

In this article we will discuss Ice Ages in India

In this article, we will discuss Ice Ages in India. So, let’s get started.

Ice Ages in India

The subcontinent of India has recorded several ice ages, A brief description of the Indian Ice Ages has been given in the following section:

The Dharwar Ice Age
The moraine deposits and other glaciated tpopgraphical features observed in the Dharwar District of Karnataka indicate an ice age during the Dharwadian Period , i.e., about 1700 million years ago.

The Gondwana Ice Age
The Telcher Series (Odisha) of the Gondwana System provides a good proof of the glaciation during the Gondwana Period.

The Pleistocene Ice Age
During the Pleistocene Period the effect of ice age was noticed in the Himalaya, especially in the Karakoram and the Greater Himalayan ranges. The erratic rocks, boulders, cirques, eskers, rock polishing, buff-coloured sands, and luminated days inter-stratified among the karewas deposits of Kashmir Bhadarwa (Doda),and Ladakh give enough proof of the Pleistocene glaciation . The Pleistocene glaciation also led to the formation of a number of high altitude glacial lakes of the Himalaya. The Kailash-Kund, The Sanasar Lake near Batote, the Gulmarg -basin, the Sheshnag, and the Gangabal Lake are some of the examples of this type of lakes. The Peninsular part of India has no evidence of Pleistocene glaciation.

The subcontinent of India has recorded several ice ages, A brief description of the Indian Ice Ages has been given in the following section:

The Dharwar Ice Age
The moraine deposits and other glaciated tpopgraphical features observed in the Dharwar District of Karnataka indicate an ice age during the Dharwadian Period , i.e., about 1700 million years ago.

The Gondwana Ice Age
The Telcher Series (Odisha) of the Gondwana System provides a good proof of the glaciation during the Gondwana Period.

The Pleistocene Ice Age
During the Pleistocene Period the effect of ice age was noticed in the Himalaya, especially in the Karakoram and the Greater Himalayan ranges. The erratic rocks, boulders, cirques, eskers, rock polishing, buff-coloured sands, and luminated days inter-stratified among the karewas deposits of Kashmir Bhadarwa (Doda),and Ladakh give enough proof of the Pleistocene glaciation . The Pleistocene glaciation also led to the formation of a number of high altitude glacial lakes of the Himalaya. The Kailash-Kund, The Sanasar Lake near Batote, the Gulmarg-basin, the Sheshnag, and the Gangabal Lake are some of the examples of this type of Lakes. The Peninsular part of India has no evidence of Pleistocene glaciation.

The Importance Of The Himalaya

The mighty Himalaya are the most pronounced and dominating physiographic feature of the subcontinent of India. It has often been said that the Himalaya are the body and soul of India. The importance of the Himalaya has been given briefly in the following lines:

Climatic Influence
The impact of the Himalaya on the climate, especially on the distribution of precipitation and temperature, is quite significant. The altitude of the Himalaya, their sprawl and extension intercept the summer monsoon coming from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. They also prevent the cold Sinberian air masses from entering into India. Had there been no Himalaya, the whole of northern India would have been a desert. According to the latest meteorological studies, the Himalaya are responsible for the splitting of the jet streams into two branches, and these in turn, play an important role in the arrival, success and failure of the monsoons in India.

Defence
Throughout history, the foreign invaders never entered India from the northern side. Despite
modern technology of warfare, the Himalaya have great defence value. At present, a network of highways has been developed up to China, Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan borders,

Source of Perennial Rivers
Most of the perennial rivers of northern India have their origin in the glaciers, lakes, and springs of the Himalaya. These rivers sustain the teeming millions of the India population.

Source of Fertile Soils
The perennial rivers and their tributaries carry enormous quantities of alluvial soils. In fact, the
Great Plains of India are covered by the fertile alluvial soils deposited by the rivers coming down from the Himalaya.

Generation of Hydroelectricity
The Bhakra-Nangal Dam, Giri-Bata, Chamera, Pong, Bassi, Silal, Dulhasti Baghliar Projects, Tehri Dam, Koteshwar etc., are some of the important hydel-power generating multi-purpose projects located in the Himalaya.

Forest Wealth
The Himalayan ranges are very rich in forest resources. There is a horizontal zonation of vegetation in the Himalaya. The natural vegetation in the Himalaya varies from the humid tropical to the conifers and alpine pastures. These forests provide fuelwood, timber, gum, resins, lac, medicinal herbs, and a variety of materials for the industries. At the higher altitudes are the alpine pastures (margs) used by the tribals for grazing cattle during the summer season.

Orchards
The Himalaya are known for the apple, peach, cherry, pear, mulberry, walnut, almond, and apricot orchards.

Minerals
The Himalaya are rich in many metallic and non-metallic minerals. Coal is found in Jammu
Division of Jammu and Kashmir. Copper, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, gold, silver, antimony, tungsten, magnesite, limestone, semi-precious, and precious stones are found in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. The poor accessibility is, however, a barrier in the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the Himalaya.

Tourism
The Himalaya are known for their scenic and aesthetic beauty all over the world. The Himalaya
offer cool, invigorating climate when the neighbouring plains are in the grip of scorching heat of the summer season. Millions of national and international tourists visit the hill stations in the Himalaya. The famous tourist centres in the Himalaya are Srinagar, Pahalgam, Gulmarg, Sonmarg, Yushmarg, Wular-round, Chamba, Dalhousie, Dharamshala, Shimla, Solan, Kangra, Kullu, Manali, Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet, Almora, and Darjeeling.

Pilgrimage
Apart from places of tourist interest, the Himalaya have numerous shrines and pilgrimage centres. Some of the important shrines in the Himalaya are the Amarnath, Hazratbal (Srinagar), Kailash, Vaishno Devi, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gangotri, Yamunotri, Jwalaji, Hemkund, etc.

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