Physiographic Divisions of India (Longitudinal Divisions of the Himalaya)

In this article we will discuss Physiographic Divisions of India (Longitudinal Divisions of the Himalaya)

In this article, we will discuss Physiographic Divisions of India (Longitudinal Divisions of the Himalaya). So, let’s get started.

Longitudinal Divisions of the Himalaya
The Himalaya have also been divided by Sir S. Burrard into four divisions, namely (i) The Western Himalaya, (i) The Kumaun Himalaya, (ii) The Nepal Himalaya, (iv) The Assam Himalaya. Prof. S.P. Chatterjee (1973), divided the Himalaya into the lollowing Six transverse divisions from west to east:

The Kashmir Himalaya
The Himachal Himalaya
The Kumaun Himalaya
The Central Himalaya
The Eastern Himalaya

The Kashmir Himalaya
Sprawling over an area of about 350,000 sq km in the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, the range stretches about 700 km in length and 500 km in width. With an average height of 3000 m, it has the largest number of glaciers. in india. The Ladakh region of the Kashmir Himalaya is characterised by cold desert conditions. Ladakh is one of the loftiest inhabited regions of the world (3600-4600). The gorge of Gilgit is 5200 m in height above the sea level of the water at its bed. Surrounded by the Greater Himalaya and the Lesser Himalaya is the Kashmir Valley. Having a height. 1585 m above the sea-level, the total area of the Kashmir Valley is about 4920 sq km. It is a structural longitudinal “Dun” (D.N. Wadia). A special feature of the the Vale of Kashmir is the karewa (lacustrine) deposits consisting of silt, sand and clay. These karewas are mainly devoted to the cultivation of saffron and have orchards of apple, peach, almond, walnut and apricot. The Himalaya in Kashmir by high snow covered peaks, deep valleys, interlocked spurs and high mountain passes. Pir-Panjal, Banihal (Jawahar Tunnel), Zoji-La, Burzil, Khardungla, Pensi-La, Saser-La,Lanak-La, Jara-La, Taska-La, Chang-La, Umasi-La, and Qara-Tagh-La (Karakoram) are the important mountain passes of the Kashmir Himalaya.
The Himadri: Known as the abode of gods, this section of the Himalaya has many snow capped peaks, such knows as Nanga-Parbat (8119 m), (Nanda Devi 7817 m), Trisul (7140 m), Nunkun(7135 m), Kamath (7756 m), etc.

The Himachal Himalaya
Stretching over Himachal Pradesh, it occupies an area of about 45,000 sq km. All the three ranges (the Greater, the Lesser, and the Outer Himalaya) are well represented in this region. The northern slopes of the Himachal Himalaya are clothed with thick forests and show plains and lakes, while the Southern slopes are rugged and forest clad. Rohtang, Bara-Lacha, and Shipki-La are the important passes which join Himachal Pradesh with Tibet (China). The beautiful and highly productive valleys of Kangra, Kullu, Manali, Lahul, and Spiti lie in Himachal Pradesh. These valleys are well known for orchards and scenic beauty. Shimla, Dalhousie, Chamba, Dharamshala, Kullu-Manali are the important hill stations of this region.

The Kumaun Himalaya
The Kumaun Himalaya lie between the Satluj and the Kali rivers, stretching to a length of 320 km
and occupying an area of about 38.000 sq km. Its highest peak is Nanda Devi (7817 m). Among the other peaks Kamet (7756 m), Trisul (7140 m), Badrinath (7138 m), Kedarnath (6940 m), Dunagiri (7066 m), Jaonli or Shivling (6638 m), Gangotri (6615 m), and Bandarpunch (6320 m) are important. Gangotri, Milam, and Pindar are the main glaciers of Uttarakhand. The important hill stations include Mussorrie, Nainital, Ranikhet, Almora, and Bageshwar. The Kumaun Himalaya are connected to Tibet by a number of passes namely, Thaga-La Muling-La (5669 m), Mana Pass, Niti Pass, (5068 m), Tun-Jun-La, Shalsal Pass, Balcha Dhura, Kungrinbingri Pass, Lampiya Dhura, Mangsha Dhura and Lipu Lekh. (to be continued…..)

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