In this article, we will discuss various Types of Lakes. So, let’s get started.
Types of Lakes
A lake is a natural depression filled with water in this period of population explosion and scarcity of water, lakes are an important source of water supply to humanity. They also help in the prevention of sudden floods and droughts. The lakes of India have different origins. Some of the important lakes of India have been described briefly in the following section:
The Tectonic Lakes
These are formed due to the fractures and faults in the earth’s crust. Most of the lakes in the hilly areas of Kashmir and Kumaun belong to this type of lakes. The Tso Moriri and Pangong Tos
(Ladakh) are some of the examples of such lakes.
The Crater Lakes
Crater lakes are formed when the craters and calderas are filled with water. They are very few in
number in India. The ‘Lonar Lake of Buldhana’ (Maharashtra) is one of the examples of crater lakes.
Glacial Lakes (Tarns)
These lakes are the result of glacial erosion Tarn is a small mountain lake, especially one that
collects in a cirque basin behind rises of rock material. Most of the glacial lakes in India are small in size. The Gangabal lake of Kashmir, located in the Greater Himalayas of Kashmir, is one such examples. Glacial lakes are also found in Ladakh (J&K), Himachal Pradesh, and Kumaun region of Uttarakhand.
Rivers form different types of lakes through their erosional and depositional work. In general, rivers are the destroyers of lakes. In fact, lakes are often obliterated due to filling of sediments and headward erosion by rivers. Fluvially originated lakes are generally temporary and are soon obliterated Fluviaslly originated lakes include plunge-pool lakes (in front of a waterfall), ox-bow-lakes, alluvial fan lakes, delta lakes, flood plain lakes and raft-dammed lakes. All these lakes may be observed in the upper, middle, and lower courses of the Ganga and the Erahmaputra rivers. Lakes formed to the meandering of rivers in the plains of gentle gradient are known as alluvial lakes. The ox-bow lakes found in the Middle and Lower Ganga Plains are some such examples.
These are small temporary hollows or depressions lying on the wind blown sand surface. Western Rajasthan has several lakes of this type. The desert lakes generally have a lorger proportion of salt content and are often been called salt lakes. The Dhands of western Rajasthan are some of such examples.
These lakes are formed due to a depression of the surface by underground dissolution of soluble rocks like limestone and gypsum. Such lakes are found in and around Cherrapunji, Shillong (Meghalaya), Bhimtal ( Kumaun), and Garhwal(Uttarakhand).
These are formed by the deposition of sandbars along the sea coast. The Lake Chilkaof Odisha: Pulicat (Andhra Pradesh); Vembanad. Asthamudi, and Kayals of Keralaare some of the examples of lagoons.
These lakes are produced by landslides and rock-falls causing obstruction in the course of streams. The Gohna Lake of Garhwal was formed due to a huge landslip across a tributary of the Ganga.