In this article, we will discuss National Emergency (Part-2). So, let’s get started.
Parliamentary Approval and Duration
The proclamation of Emergency must be approved by both the Houses of Parliyament within one month from the date of its issue. Originally, the period allowed for approval by the Parliament was two months, but was reduced by the 44th Amendment Act. of 1978. However, if the proclamatinon of emergency is 1ssued at a time when the Lok Sabha has bcen dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of one month without approving
the proclamation, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha has in the meantime approved it.
If approved by both the Houses of Parliament, the emergency continues for six months, and can be extended to an indefinite period with an approval of the Parliament for every six months. This provision for periodical parliamentary approval was also added by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978. Before that, the emergency, once approved
by the Parliament, could remain in operation as long as the Executive (cabinet) desired. However, if the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of six months without approving the further continuance of Emergency, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha has in the mean-time approved its continuation.
Every resolution approving the proclamation of emergency or its continuance must be passed by either House of Parliament by a special majority, that is, (a) a majority of the total membership of that house, and (b) a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that house present and voting. This special majority provision was introduced by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978. Previously. such resolution could be passed by a simple majority of the Parliament.