In this article, we will discuss Physiography and Relief Features of Peninsular India (Part-2). So, let’s get started.
The North Deccan (Maharashtra Plateau)
The plateau of Maharashtra includes the entire state of Maharashtra, except the Konkan coast and the Sahyadris. It is mainly covered by the basalt of the Cretaceous Period. The basaltic sheet has a thickness of about 3 km in the western parts which diminishes towards the east and south-east. The most striking feature of the Maharashtra Plateau is the fault (1000 m), giving rise to the present shoreline of the Arabian Sea.
Through the northern part of the Maharashtra Plateau flows the Tapi River from east to west.
It has a gentle slope in the south and steep gradient in the north (towards the Satpura Hills).
(i) The Mahanadi Basin: Sprawling over the districts of Raipur, Bilaspur, Durg, and Rajgarh,
the Mahanadi basin is also known as the Chhattisgarh Plain. The region is largely dominated by the Archaean and Cuddapah formations. The Mahanadi river and its tributaries like Seonath, Hasdeo, Mand, Ib, Idra and Tel drain this plain.
(ii) The Chhattisgarh Plain: It is bordered by a series of hills and plateaux. The northern boundary is formed by the Lomari Plateau, Pendra Plateau, the Chhuri, and the Raigarh Hills. The Korba coalfields of Chhattisgarh lie in this basin. The Gondwana formations are rich in bituminous coal which is supplied to the Bhilai Steel Plant. The western rimland includes the Maikal Range with crest line of 700-900 m. The southern rimland includes the Dhalli-Rajhara Hills in southern Durg district and the Raipur uplands in the south-eastern Raipur district. The Rajhara Hill contains Dharwarian rocks in which iron ore of haematite type is found. The iron ore from the Dhalli-Rajahara mines is supplied to the Bhilai Steel Plant.
(iii) Garhjat Hills: The Garhjat Hills are also known as the Odisha Highlands. It is bordered by the Chotanagpur Plateau in the north, Mahanadi basin in the west, Eastern Ghats in the south, and Utkal plains in the east. The region is mainly composed of Archaean rocks like granite, gneisses, and magmatic rocks. The Gondwana, Talcher, Barakar and Kamathi series are also located in this region.
(iv) Dandakaranya: Sprawling over the Koraput and Kalahandi districts of Odisha, Bastar District of Chhattisgarh and East Godavari, Vishakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts of Andhra Pradesh, Dandakaranya is an undulating plateau. Its Abujhmar Hills provide one of the richest iron-ore deposits at Bailadila Range. It is drained by the Tel and Udanti; tributaries of Mahanadi, and the Sabari and Sileru; tributaries of Godavari rivers.
The South Deccan
The South Deccan consists of several plateaus:
(i) Karnataka Plateau: This plateau spans in the S. W. parts state of Karnataka and the Kannur and Kozhikode districts of Kerala. It shows dominance of Archaean and Dharwar formations. This plateau has an average elevation of 600-900 m Mulangiri (1913 m) is the highest peak in Baba-Budan Hills, followed by the Kudermukh (1892 m) peak.
(ii) The Telengana Plateau: The plateau of Telengana consists of Dharwar and Cuddapah formation. Hyderabad, the capital and cultural city of the state lies in Telengana.
(iii) The Tamil Nadu Uplands: This upland lies between the South Sahyadri and Tamil Nadu costal plains. It is largely covered by the Archaean rocks. The charnockites are found in javadi and Shevaroy hills. Moreover, there are Cuddapah and alluvial formations. Between Coimbatore and Anaimalais, there is a broad gap, known as Palakkad Gap (Palghat), about 25km wide, through which flows the Gayitri river from east to west joining Tamil Nadu with the coast of Kerala